The first pronoun type to wrap our heads around is the Nominative Pronoun.
Nominative pronouns are used in sentences that have a subject and a action or a subject and a describing word.
Here are a few example sentences with the nominative pronouns ngayulu, nyuntu and paluṟu.
In this example ngayulu is the subject and tjina yananyi is the action.
In this example nyuntu is the subject and wangkanyi is the action.
In this example paluṟu kungka is the subject and waḻaṯa is the action.
Let’s move over to Ergative pronouns now that are a bit different.
Eragative pronouns are used in sentences that have a subject, an action and an object.
Here are a few example sentences with the nominative pronouns ngayulu, nyuntu and paluṟu as well as various objects.
In this example ngayulu is the subject, mai is the object and ngalkuṉi is the action.
In this example nyuntu is the subject, kapi is the object and tjikuṉu is the action.
In this example paluṟu is the subject, katji is the object and palyaṉi is the action.
The last two sets of pronoun types to touch upon are accussative pronouns and possessive pronouns.
Accusssative pronouns are used in sentences which have a subject, an action and a object. In Yankunytjatjara the -nya accussative word ending is used to indicate who does what to whom.
Some examples of accussative pronouns are:
Important to note is the -nyaending on the words that indicate they are the doer of the action.
Posessive pronouns are used to show that something belongs to someone or something. Here are a few examples of posessive pronouns.
The -mpa is the most common posessive ending for pronouns. The one exemption to this is the word for my or mine which uses the ending -ku. We’ll look at the -ku ending when looking at suffixes on words.
Here are some example sentences using the -mpa ending.
Palumpa miru palya. Palumpa means his miru means spear thrower and palya means good.
Nyangatja nyuntumpa kuka malu. Nyangatja means this, nyuntumpa means your, kuka means meat and malu means kangaroo.
Papa nyuntumpa palatja? Papa means dog, nyuntumpa means yours and palatja means that.
Wrapping our head around these four types of pronouns will take some time to learn. Understanding that words take on slightly different forms to mean slightly different things is the biggest take away we can learn as we move forward. Identifying what the core word is will help in deriving a basic meaning of a sentence.
Next up we’ll be looking at different words and sentences used around the home. We’ll learn some new words that are home and camp specific and use the words we already know of family to make some sentences.