Lesson 4 – Word Endings

A word ending is a little word that gets added on the end of another word, that gives in a bit more information. In English, -s is a word ending that means more than one, for example dog (one dog), dog-s (more than one dog). We write word endings starting with a dash because you can’t say a word ending just by itself, it needs to be attached to another word. Lower Arrernte has lots of word endings compared to English. 

Where?

in, on, at

Instead of using small location words like English inon, and at, Lower Arrernte has the word ending -nge

urtamerte
urtamertenge
mud
in the mud

Muteke uneke urtamertenge ayekaw.
My car got stuck in the mud.

muteke means car, urtamerte means mud, the word ending -nge means in and ayekaw means got stuck.

artepe
artepenge
back
on (her) back

Arrkwetyele aketyeye artepenge unthelhileme.
That woman is carrying her baby on her back.

arrkwetye means woman, aketyeye means child, artepe means back, the word ending -nge means on and unthelhileme means carrying.

Anna Creek
Anna Creek-nge
Anna Creek (Station)
at Anna Creek

Arlpenge ilerne Anna Creek-nge anetyampernenh.
We used to live on the sandhill at Anna Creek.

arlpenge means on a sandhill, ilerne means we two, the word ending -nge means at and anetyampernenhe means used to live.

To, towards

The word ending -karle means moving to or towards somewhere or something.

pmere
pmerekarle
camp
to camp

Unarre pmerekarle lhelarreweme.
We are going to camp.

unarre means we, pmere means camp, the word ending -karle means to/towards and lhelarreweme means going

Mernanke
Mernankekarle
(Placename)
to Mernankekarle

Mernankekarle anemele ntarrengenhe.
Chased him to Mernanke.

Mernanke is a placename, anemele means to be and ntarrengenhe means chased.

From

The word ending -ketyele means moving away from somewhere or something.

ure
ureketyele
fire
from the fire

Ureketyele petyay!
Come away from the fire!

ure means fire, the word ending -ketyele means from and petyay means come!

inteye
inteyeketyele
cave
from the cave

Inteyeketyele intyelantyeme.
Coming out from the cave.

inteye means cave, the word ending -ketyele means from and intyelantyeme come out.

Whose?

The word ending -kenhe shows that something belongs to someone or something, just like English ’s (for example Fred’s book).

aketyeye
akatyeyekenhe
child
the child’s

Arntekerte akemarle aketyeyekenhe.
The child’s big coolamon

arntekerte means coolamon, akemarle means big, aketyey means child and the word ending -kenhe means ‘s

Having and lacking

With, having

The word ending -akerte on a word means having or with that person or thing.

irlpakert
irlpakertakerte
ears
rabbit (literally 'ear-having')

lekere mape
lekere mapakerte
many dogs
having many dogs

Kamerninpe awenhatye lekere mapakerte.
My uncle and auntie have many dogs.

kamerne means uncle, the word ending -inpe means and, awenhe means auntie (father’s sister), lekere means dog, mape means many and the word ending -akerte means have.

Lacking, without

The word ending -kwenye on a word means lacking, not having or without that person or thing. Kind of like the ending -less in English, for example shamelessnameless, toothless.

itne
itnekwenye
name
nameless

Pmere itnekwenye aperte nhenhaye.
This hill is nameless.

pmere means place, itne means name, the word ending -kwenye means -less, aperte means hill and nhenhay means this.

merne
mernekwenye
food
no food

Ayitye, mernekwenye.
Nothing, we don't have any food.

ayitye means nothing, merne means food and the word ending -kwenye means not having.

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